By the end of year 1, children begin to solve simple problems involving addition and subtraction in familiar contexts, such as going shopping, using a range of hands-on equipment, symbols, images and pictures. For example:
Children will identify and represent numbers using objects, pictures and models, such as the number line, and use ‘equal to, more than, less than (fewer), most and least.’ Children will accurately count numbers to, and across, 100 forwards and backwards from any given number with increasing understanding. They count, read, write and order numbers in numerals up to 100 and from 1 to 20 in words. When given a number, they can identify one more and one less. They can count in multiples of twos, fives and tens.
Children will understand known addition and subtraction facts within 20, including zero. They will demonstrate an understanding of multiplication and division through grouping and sharing using hands-on resources, pictorial representations and arrays (2, 5 and 10). They understand doubling and halving small quantities.
Through play and hands-on resources, children will find and name half and one quarter of objects, shapes and quantities.
Children will begin to measure using non-standard units (finger widths, blocks etc.) moving to standard units of measure (e.g. cm) using tools such as a ruler, weighing scales and containers. They will begin to record and compare measurements such as lengths and heights, mass and weight, capacity and volume using language such as long / short; heavy / light; full / half-full / empty. They will tell the time to the hour, half past the hour and be able to sequence events in chronological order using precise language (for example, before and after, next, first, today etc.). Children will recognise and know the value of different denominations of coins and notes.
Children will recognise and name common 2-D shapes, e.g. rectangles (including squares), circles and triangles, and 3-D shapes, e.g. cuboids (including cubes, pyramids and spheres) in different orientations and sizes. They will describe position, direction and movement, including whole, half and three quarter turns.